Birth of an Anthem

Francis Scott Key

Francis Scott Key (August 1, 1779 – January 11, 1843) Portrait by Joseph Wood Circa 1825

Francis Scott Key
(August 1, 1779 – January 11, 1843)
Portrait by Joseph Wood
Circa 1825

An American lawyer, author, and amateur poet from Georgetown and Washington D.C., Francis Scott Key penned the lyrics to the United States’ national anthem, “The Star-Spangled Banner.”

During the War of 1812, Key, accompanied by British Prisoner Exchange Agent Colonel John Stuart Skinner, dined aboard the British ship HMS Tonnant as guests of three British officers: Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane, Rear Admiral George Cockburn, and Major General Robert Ross.  Skinner and Key, there to negotiate release of American prisoners, would learn the strength and position of British units and their plan to attack.  Prevented from returning to their own sloop, Key was forced to watch bombarding of the American forces at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore on the nights of September 13–14, 1814.

At dawn, able to see an American flag still waving, Key informed the prisoners below deck.  Inspired, he would compose a poem of his experience, “Defence of Fort M’Henry,” which was quickly published on September 21, 1814.  Adapted to music, it became known as the “The Star Spangled Banner.”  More than a century later, the song was adopted as the American national anthem, first by Executive Order from President Woodrow Wilson in 1916 and later by Congressional resolution in 1931, signed by President Herbert Hoover.

Plaque commemorating the death of Francis Scott Keyplaced by the DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution) in Baltimore, Maryland

Plaque commemorating the death of Francis Scott Key
by the DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution) in Baltimore, Maryland

 Fort McHenry

Bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British September 13, 1814

Bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British
September 13, 1814

“A VIEW of the BOMBARDMENT of Fort McHenry near Baltimore by the British fleet, taken from the Observatory under Command of British Admirals Cochrane & Cockburn on the morning of the 13th of September.  Lasting 24 hours, 1500 to 1800 shells were thrown in the Night while the British, attempting to land by forcing passage up the ferry branch, were repulsed with great loss.”

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The flag that flew over Fort McHenry during its bombardment in 1814 would remain in possession of the family of Major Armistead, Commander of the fort, until its donation to the Smithsonian in 1912.

Flag flown over Fort McHenry during 1814 Bombardment by the British. September 13-14, 1814

Flag flown over Fort McHenry during Bombardment by the British on September 13-14, 1814

Replica of the Fort McHenry Flag, Flown in the 1814 Bombardment by the British, currently flying over Fort McHenry

Replica of the Fort McHenry flag,
flown in the British Bombardment of 1814, remains flying over the fort

In a beautiful rendition of the “Star-Spangled Banner,” over 1,000 high-school choir students sing the U.S. national anthem during their annual Kentucky conference. Filmed in 2015, they gather on balconies in the lobby of their high-rise hotel as an appreciative audience listens enthralled. The students repeat their touching performance every year.

God Bless America

4th of July fireworks Washington D.C.

4th of July fireworks Washington D.C.

Land of the Free and Home of the Brave

Statue of Liberty Liberty Island New York City, New York

Statue of Liberty
Liberty Island
New York City, New York


The Birth of a Nation

240 Years

1776 – 2016

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In Memory of Valor and Sacrifice

Quote by John F. Kennedy Overlooking Arlington National Cemetery

Quote by John F. Kennedy
Overlooking Arlington National Cemetery

“Never in the history of the world has a country sacrificed more for the freedom and liberty of all.”

 

The Old Guard transports a flag-draped casket in full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery Army Photo

The Old Guard transports a flag-draped casket in full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery
U. S. Army Photo

When we mourn for such men who have died, ….we should thank God that such men were born.                                              – Gen. George S. Patton, Jr.

 

Arlington Cemetery Memorial Day

Memorial Day at Arlington National Cemetery

Their sacrifice, their pain, their selfless courage  must continue to burn like an eternal flame in our memory.                                       –  Gen. Colin Powell

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In Memory of their Sacrifice

Flag-draped American caskets on National Mall

 God Bless America and our Military

Helicopter flying in front of the Statue of Liberty, New York. Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement office of Air and Marine Interdiction provides airspace security over New York City.

Helicopter flying in front of the Statue of Liberty, New York. Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement office of Air and Marine Interdiction provides airspace security over New York City.

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“Their sense of duty continues to  preserve our past, safeguard our present, and sustain our future.” 

 

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Capturing Valor

Iwo Jima

Raising the First Flag on Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima Left to right: 1st Lt. Harold Schrier[7] (crouched behind radioman's legs), Pfc. Raymond Jacobs (radioman reassigned from F Company), Sgt. Henry "Hank" Hansen (cloth cap, securing flag pipe with left hand), Platoon Sgt. Ernest "Boots" Thomas (seated), Pvt. Phil Ward (helmeted, securing flag pipe with both hands), PhM2c John Bradley, USN (helmeted, securing the flag pipe with right hand, standing above Ward), Pfc. James Michels (holding M1 Carbine), and Cpl. Charles W. Lindberg (standing above Michels). Photo by by SSgt. Louis R. Lowery, USMC

Raising the First Flag on Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima
Photo by SSgt. Louis R. Lowery, USMC

February 23, 1945

Five U.S. Marines and a Navy Corpsman Raise the American Flag

 

Mount Suribachi The dominant geographical feature of the island of Iwo Jima U.S. Navy Photo

Mount Suribachi
The dominant geographical feature of the island of Iwo Jima
U.S. Navy Photo

On February 19, 1945, the United States invaded Iwo Jima as part of  its strategy to defeat Japan.  Although not originally a target, the relatively swift fall of the Philippines provided a tactical opportunity prior  to the planned invasion of Okinawa.   Iwo Jima, used by the Japanese to alert the  homeland of incoming American planes, was located  between Japan and the Mariana Islands, a base used for long-range American bombers.  Following capture of the island, America would weaken the Japanese early warning system and provide an emergency landing strip for damaged bombers.

A volcanic  island,  Iwo Jima was heavily fortified and the invading U.S. Marines suffered high casualties.   The elevation of Mount Suribachi’s 546-foot dormant cone was a tremendous artillery vantage  point for the Japanese  in underground bunkers and pill boxes  against our forces – particularly its landing beaches.  As a necessity, American effort concentrated on isolating and capturing Suribachi, a goal achieved on February 23, 1945 with the raising of the American flag just four days following the commencement of battle.  A larger second flag would soon replace the former and  three Marines depicted in the flag raising would be killed in action over the next few days.

As the first Japanese homeland soil  secured  by Americans, it had been a matter of honor for the Japanese to prevent its capture.  Despite  our success in reaching Suribachi, the battle continued to rage for 31 days until the 26th of March.  The 35-day assault would ultimately result in more than 26,000 American casualties, including 6,800 deaths. 

The flags from the first and second flag-raisings are conserved in the National Museum of the Marine Corps. second flag, pictured here, was damaged by the high winds at the peak of Suribachi (American flags during World War II had 48 stars, since Alaska and Hawaii were not yet U.S. states). Photo: Creative Commoms

The first and second flag raisings are conserved in the National Museum of Marine Corps.
The second flag, pictured here, was damaged by high winds at the peak of Suribachi
(American flags during World War II had 48 stars, as Alaska and Hawaii were not yet U.S. states).
Photo: Creative Commons

A National Monument

Marine Corps War Memorial Arlington, Virginia

Marine Corps War Memorial
Arlington, Virginia

Regarded  as one of the most significant and recognizable images of WWII, the photo by Joe Rosenthal for the Associated Press, depicting marines raising the flag on Iwo Jima,  was later used by Felix de Weldon to sculpt the Marine Corps War Memorial in Arlington, Virginia.  Dedicated in 1954, the monument honors the memory of all Marines who have given their lives in service for their country.

Commissioned to design the memorial in 1951, it would take three years and hundreds of assistants to complete the iconic image.  The flag-raising survivors would pose for de Weldon who would then sculpt from photographs the marines killed in action.

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A Medal of Honor on Iwo Jima

“Uncommon Valor was a Common Virtue”

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Remembering Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

Japan’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor was a defining moment for our country and  propelled the United States into World War II.   Millions of Americans prepared to  enlist and serve for the devastation and losses suffered.

Americans enlist following the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 Time & Life Pictures / Getty Image

Americans enlist following the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941
Time & Life Pictures / Getty Image

With twenty-one American naval vessels and over three hundred aircraft damaged or destroyed,  Japanese  bombardment  killed 2,403 military personnel and civilians and shattered the U.S. Pacific Fleet.

Following an afternoon of monitoring the crisis, President Roosevelt would begin  preparing  a message for Congress.  Though drafted in haste, FDR’s words galvanized the nation with his historic speech.

“December 7, 1941 – a date which will live in infamy

With confidence in our armed forces—with the unbounding determination of our people—we will gain the inevitable triumph- so help us God.”

Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum 
President Franklin D. Roosevelt Delivering his "Day of Infamy" speech to Congress for a declaration of war December 8, 1941 (U.S. Government - U.S. Archives)

President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Addresses Congress for a Declaration of War
December 8, 1941
(U.S. Government – U.S. Archives)

Roosevelt’s “Day of Infamy” Speech

President Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan on December 8, 1941 in the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor. (National Archives and Records Administration - Abbie Rowe) (National Archives and Records Administration

President Roosevelt signs the Declaration of War against Japan
in the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
December 8, 1941
(National Archives and Records Administration)

In Service and Sacrifice

16,100,000 Americans served during World War II

  American military casualties totaled 407,316

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The very soul of a nation is its heroes”

USN Pearl Harbor Survivor, Bill Johnson (January 20, 2004) Wall of Casualties – USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. "To the memory of the gallant men here entombed and their shipmates who gave their lives in action on December 7, 1941 on the USS Arizona" (U.S. Navy Photo)

USN Pearl Harbor Survivor, Bill Johnson (January 20, 2004)
Wall of Casualties – USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
To the memory of gallant men here entombed and their shipmates
who gave their lives in action on December 7, 1941.
(U.S. Navy Photo)

In Eternal Remembrance

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A Father’s Service, PT 161

We honor our fathers for their presence in our lives.  For those who are veterans, we should also remember their service.

DadLT JOHN MCELROY, USN

Prior to Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941, John McElroy had never considered the military as a career.  Impacted, however, like so many others by that horrific event, he enlisted the following  day and chose the Navy for the devastation and losses  suffered.  Subsequently called to active duty, he was ordered to Northwestern University and the Navy’s exceptional Midshipmen’s School.  There college graduates were trained as naval officers and known as “90-day wonders.”

Seaman McElroy - Northwestern University , 1942 (Back row, 3rd from the left). Appointed Seaman Apprentice on April 11, 1942, the training involved a one-month period of instruction.

Seaman John McElroy (Back row, 3rd from left)
Naval Midshipmen’s School
Northwestern University
Appointed Seaman Apprentice (April 11, 1942)

Excerpts of Lt. John McElroy’s WWII notes:

Training involved a one-month period of education. There was a thorough indoctrination course on apprentice seamanship and instruction in all sorts of nautical abilities, knot tying, survival skills, and such.  This was followed by instruction in ordnance, gunnery, navigation, engineering and PT (Patrol Torpedo).

Seaman McElroy in Naval Training at Northwestern University, 1942

Seaman John McElroy
Naval Training at Northwestern University
April 1942

Upon completion of Midshipmen’s School, I was asked by Commander Bulkeley if I might consider volunteering for Motor Torpedo Boat duty.  In deliberation, I felt drawn to the adrenaline and independence of torpedo boat service and the close engagement with Japanese forces.  It was also nearly the only way I would ever skipper my own boat and the very thought of it intrigued me. Upon receiving notice for selection of duty with the “Mosquito Fleet,” I considered it an honor to serve.

Midshipman John McElroy Appointed May 15, 1942) Prior to reporting to Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center (MTBSTC) Melville, Rhode Island June 1942

Midshipman John McElroy
(Appointed May 15, 1942)
Reported to Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center (MTBSTC)
Melville, Rhode Island
June 1942

An intensive three-weeks torpedo course was provided prior to reporting for two-months of torpedo boat training at Melville, Rhode Island.  When I first strolled down the hill toward Narragansett Bay and saw those deadly looking boats in the lagoon, I wondered what loomed ahead.

We were trained on an Elco 80-foot PT boat.  She was quite a speed  craft with three large 12-cylinder Packard gasoline engines, a total of 4500 horsepower, and capable of 41 knots.  Each PT boat had four 21-inch torpedo tubes, and several .50 caliber machine guns.  I could only imagine the kind of retribution we could unleash.

Elco 80-Foot PT Boat<br> Navy Photo

Elco 80-Foot PT Boat
Navy Photo

When we started out, I didn’t know an auxiliary generator from a heat exchanger, a lazarette from a flux gate, or a vee drive from a butterfly muffler.  I did learn quickly at the hands of those salty boat captains who never missed a chance to tell us how rugged life was “out in the area.”   We practiced torpedo runs, learned aircraft and ship recognition, and the mechanics of  field stripping a .50 caliber machine gun, although most of us never became totally proficient at blinker.

We made regular torpedo runs on the Vineyard Haven light ship, patrolled outside the anti-submarine nets, ran missions to Block Island, and practiced boat handling at a dilapidated dock in the Fall River.   

John McElroy (R) at MTBSTC in Melville RI (1942) "PT Boats in the Pacific" Military History Documentary

Midshipman John McElroy (R) at MTBSTC in Melville RI (1942)
“PT Boats in the Pacific”
Military History Documentary

Ensign John McElroy (Appointed August 3, 1942) Following graduation from the Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center (MTBSTC) Melville, Rhode Island August, 1942

Ensign John McElroy
(Appointed August 3, 1942)
Following graduation from the Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center (MTBSTC)
Melville, Rhode Island
August, 1942

Upon completion of Motor Torpedo Boat training, I reported to the Brooklyn Naval Yard at Bayonne, New Jersey.   Assigned to a crew, I was appointed skipper of PT-161.  Following training together, our boat was commissioned into service.  Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Junior Grade, I was assigned to Squadron Ron 9 under Lieutenant Commander Robert B. Kelly in November of 1942.

Commissioning of Squadron Ron 9 Officers and Crew (Nov 1942)

Commissioning of Squadron Ron 9 Officers and Crew
November 10, 1942

Lt Cmdr H. F. Sasse Commissions Squadron Ron 9 (Nov 10 1942)

Lt Cmdr H. F. Sasse Commissions Squadron Ron 9
November 10, 1942

Squadron 9 Officers November, 1942

Squadron Ron 9 Officers
November 10, 1942

LTJG John McElroy's PT 161

LTJG John McElroy’s PT 161

PT-161 Log LTJG John McElroy, Commanding Officer

PT-161 Log
LTJG John McElroy, Commanding Officer

It was indeed a time of great tension and uncertainty, but also of great patriotism. Our squadron left the states with eight of our boats cradled on the deck of a tanker and my boat looked awkward in its position above the water. Our destination was Panama and it was January, 1943.

Squadron Nine PT boats loaded on SS White Plains for shipment to Panama New York, December 1942 National Archives Photo

Squadron Ron 9 PT Boats
Loaded on SS White Plains for shipment to Panama
New York, December 1942
National Archives Photo

Once through the Panama Canal, our boats were unloaded in the Gulf of Panama and we gave them a thorough shakedown at Taboga Island, the Island of Flowers. Our training at Taboga lasted about 30 days.

I named our boat “Jahnz Canoe.” When you really put the throttle to her, the boat would lift up out of the water and shoot a high rooster tail wake behind us.  Cruising in this patrol boat was an exciting rush. We practiced making torpedo runs on moving targets, assimilating everything but the actual live fire of our torpedoes.

Our boats were subsequently reloaded onto the deck of another tanker and we headed for the South Pacific. It was a long and monotonous cruise southwestward toward the war.  Our destination was New Caledonia in the Coral Sea.

Upon arrival at Noumea, New Caledonia, our Ron 9 Squadron took part in boat exercises along with the battleships Washington, Indiana, and North Carolina.  These took place in a storm with mountainous seas which beat us and our boats terribly. Several had extensive damage and one crewman suffered a broken leg.  Our PT-161 survived but it required patching 10 cracked frames and 32 planks on the bottom of our boat.

Memories I shall remember most about this place are the isolated leper colony, the barrage balloons, and the storm that nearly sunk my boat.  It was indeed a rude welcome to the South Pacific.

Following repairs, we sailed under our own power North by Northwest nearly 550 nautical miles to Tulagi in the Solomon Islands.

Squadron Ron 9 Officers

MTBTC Graduating Class (Hut 35) Oct 7 1942 LTJG John McElroy, 2nd row, 1st on Right

MTBTC Graduating Class (Hut 35)
Oct 7 1942
LTJG John McElroy, 2nd row, 1st on Right

Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Ron 9 Officers Solomon Islands, June 1943 (LTJG McElroy - 2nd from left, back row)

Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Ron 9 Officers
Solomon Islands, June 1943
(LTJG John McElroy – back row, 2nd from left)

Commanding Officer, Ron 9 Squadron, Robert B. Kelly (7th from left) and PT-157 crew with Skipper Buddy Lebinow (eighth from left)

Commanding Officer, Ron 9 Squadron, Robert B. Kelly (7th from left)
and PT-157 crew with Skipper Buddy Lebinow (eighth from left) )
who would later rescue John F. Kennedy of PT-109.

Skippers Webb, Ruff, and McElroy at Tulagi (1943)

PT Skippers Webb, Ruff, and McElroy at Tulagi, Solomon Islands (1943)

Skippers Smith, McElroy, Hayes, Brantingham, and Davidson Tulagi in the Solomon Islands

PT Skippers Smith, McElroy, Hayes, Brantingham, and Davidson
Tulagi , Solomon Islands 1943

Skippers McElroy, Marshall, Litton, and Hayes Tulagi 1943

PT Skippers McElroy, Marshall, Litton, and Hayes
Tulagi, Solomon Islands 1943

 

Silver (Radar Officer) Tiberti (Gunner's Mate) Spivey (Motor Mac) PT-161

Silver (Radar Officer) Tiberti (Gunner’s Mate) Spivey (Motor Mac)

J. D. McGloughlin, Executive Officer, PT-154

J. D. McGloughlin
Executive Officer, PT-154

 

Charles Silver Executive Officer, PT -153

Charles Silver
Executive Officer, PT -153

 

Charles Silver (left)  and J.D. McGloughlin (right), who was the first casualty of Ron 9.   He was killed in action on November 14, 1943.

 

Once in the Solomons, we were now in the middle of the shooting war.  At issue were the airstrips on all the various islands and who controlled them.   Our mission  would be threefold:  prevent the Japanese Navy and Tokyo Express from resupplying island strongholds in the area, prevent  the escape of Japanese forces and their concentrated movement between the islands, and help move Marine-strike forces behind enemy lines.  

We made most of our combat patrols at night. That’s when the Japanese Navy ran their Tokyo Express down the slot south through the Solomons.  Many a brave ship of our Navy had met its fate here in these waters of Iron Bottom Sound,  named  for dozens of ships and planes sunk during the Battle of Guadalcanal in 1942-43.

Occasionally we witnessed distant flashes on the horizon followed seconds later by a muffled boom which signaled the probable death of a ship and its men.

PT boat heads out for a night's patrol

PT Boat heads out for a night’s patrol

 

Iron Bottom Sound

Iron Bottom Sound
Stretch of water at the southern end of the slot
between Guadalcanal, Savo Island, and Florida Island in the Solomons

Our accommodations at Tulagi could best be described as native casual where mosquitoes and rats were a constant nuisance.   Our tents, huts, native lean-tos, and Atibrine tablets struggled against the thick jungle, heavy rainfall, high temperatures, swamps, excessive mud, and malaria.  We knew we were fortunate, however, compared to the Marines and coast watchers in these jungles.

Establishing the PT Boat Base at Tulagi, Solomon Islands

Establishing the PT Boat Base at Tulagi, Solomon Islands

Tulagi PT Boat Base

Tulagi PT Boat Base, Solomon Islands

The average age of my crew was well below the standard for the squadron but, in my estimation, was the best of them all and soon gained a reputation as an outstanding crew.  Mainly because of the fine crew I had, I was made a section leader, which meant we were in the lead of three to six PT boats on every combat patrol.

PT-161 was always second in Commander Kelly’s squadron, for he knew he could depend on us to maneuver with him at close range under any conditions and into any fight.  Attacking Japanese destroyers and innumerable enemy barges. I was proud of the way my crew laid down heavy and accurate fire, changed out gun barrels, and repaired disabled guns while under attack themselves.

Our Ron 9 squadron prowled mostly in the middle and northern Solomon Islands and as we fought our way through, we had to bum, borrow and steal nearly everything we needed, as we could carry few supplies on board. We were always up front and had inadequate supply lines.  Scroungers were especially prized as crewman, for we were constantly replacing parts and guns with whatever was available at the time, either by salvage or by pirating.  We acquired a 20-mm gun and mounted it to our stern and also added a smoke generator to our transom. Our PT-161 now bristled with guns.

Our Commander Kelly demanded perfection in combat readiness  for all boats, regardless how hard the duty or how short the supplies.   As our bases were bombed on a regular basis by the Japanese, we spent a fair amount of time together in fox holes while on land.  New crewman came and went as men were lost to injury, transfer, discharge and malaria. 

PT Base Rendova Island

PT Base Rendova Island

Rendova Habor Chart 1943

Rendova Harbor Chart 1943

McLaughlin Grove Rendova PT Boast Base Squadron 9, 1943

McLaughlin Grove, Rendova PT Boat Base, Solomon Islands
In Honor of Jason D. McLaugjlin, Executive Officer PT-154
First casualty of Ron 9, killed in action November 14, 1943,

We set up our new forward PT boat base just outside Rendova Harbor on a small island called Lumbaria. They named our new base “Todd City” after Ensign Leon Todd, who had been killed in action on 2 July.

On 3 July we were on the move further north. There was going to be an invasion of the island of Rendova and our job was to protect the flank of our destroyers and our invasion force. We made the move during the night and entered the harbor at dawn.

On the following night, we received a coded message that American supply ships would arrive before dawn. I had just come topside after deciphering the message when we saw naval gunfire near Banyette Point. Moments later there were shells splashing in the water nearby. It was a Japanese task force that had sailed down from Rabaul to shell our shore landing and now were shooting at us.

Commander Kelly was on Buddy Liebenow’s 157 boat. We were the second, followed by Lowry in the 162. Kelly led us straight for the enemy. We went to full speed and tore out across Blanche Channel after them. With the wind and the sea spray in my face and with enemy shells splashing around us, the thought suddenly occurred to me that this was the moment that we had been preparing for all these months.

We were speeding along across the dark water, illuminated only by two-way gunfire into what looked like the sure jaws of death, but I figured we were up to it.  At least I hoped so, as there was no turning aside now.

Apparently there is not much that is quite as unnerving to a Japanese Commander as the sight of three half-crazy American torpedo boats charging straight for you…and that was how we celebrated the 4th of July, 1943.

PT-109

JFK and PT-109 Navy Photo

John F. Kennedy and PT-109
Navy Photo

It was August 1, 1943 that we of the 161 were given a rare night off.  Several sections of our PTs, fifteen boats in all, headed out to the northwest to patrol the Ferguson passage on the southwest side of Kolombangara, a tall volcanic island that was surrounded by nearby islands of New Georgia, Wanna Wanna, and Gizo. For someone that has not been there on a moonless night, it is hard to imagine how dark it can be in the surrounding waters.

It was not until the next morning at the officers meeting that I learned that several of our boats had engaged Japanese destroyers that were coming up out of Kula Gulf through Blackett Strait. It had been the darkest of nights and the action was confusing and scattered.

Due to the inky blackness of the night, the Japanese destroyers were virtually on top of the PTs when they were first spotted, leaving little time to take action. Several boats had made torpedo runs but the results were inconclusive. One of our boats had been lost. It was struck by an enemy destroyer at high speed and cut in half.

There was an explosion and a tremendous fireball flaming high into the air. Our boats that witnessed it from various distances were pretty sure that nobody could have possibly survived that inferno. There were about 1800 gallons of 100 octane gasoline in that boat. No wreckage or survivors could be detected by the other boats.

It was the PT-109 that had been lost. We all felt bad, being friends with many of the crew but life went on at our base, Todd City.  It was not our first loss of this war and it certainly wouldn’t be the last.

PT-109 Collision Solomon Islands 1943

PT-109 collision with Japanese destroyer Amagiri
Solomon Islands, Aug 2, 1943

Five days later, I along with several others observed two natives in an outrigger canoe approach our base on Rendova. They came ashore and presented a green coconut shell, which they claimed to be from Kennedy. We were astounded, as none of us had any reason to believe that he or any other of the 109 crew were still alive.

Their names were Biuku and Eroni. We questioned them extensively to determine if this was an actual message from Kennedy. I looked at the coconut husk. On it was scribbled with a knife, “Native knows pos’it… He can pilot… 11 alive… Need small boat… Kennedy.”

We were not completely sure the two natives and the coconut shell were not part of a Japanese trap but within hours a rescue mission was organized and Buddy Liebenow of PT-157 would go in for the actual pickup.  He had been there on the night of the incident and was familiar with the proximity.

As was normal, the run was made at night with departure and speed timed to arrive on the scene during the blackest hours.  Running at patrol speed to keep the wake down, the two natives, Biuku and Eroni, stood beside Buddy and helped him locate the rendezvous point. There were so many little islets out here that it would have been near impossible to find them at night on their own.

An Australian coast watcher named Evans helped set up this whole rendezvous.  Kennedy was to be met at a predetermined spot where he would await with natives in a canoe. Four signal shots were fired by the 157 and Jack returned signal fire. Buddy moved his boat in slowly and picked him up and Jack helped pilot them toward a very small islet near Cross Island on the West side of Ferguson Passage.

The 157 boat eased in toward the shoreline of Olasana Island.  At first there was no sign of the 109 crew and, after a short wait, Kennedy started yelling for them.  Slowly they emerged one by one from the trees and the pickup proceeded forward.  Nothing had happened, as initially considered, but all were relieved to finally swing the boat around and head for home.

It was 0530 when the boats made it back to Rendova Island. It was a joyous occasion with much handshaking, back slapping, and kidding going on. There had been a little medicinal juice passed around the 157 boat on the way back and some of the 109 survivors were “extra happy” to be back at Todd City, along with several of the natives who were joyously singing “Jesus Loves Me”… It was indeed a good night and dawn for all of us.

LTJG John F. Kennedy and LTJG John McElroy Rendova Island August 1943 PT-161 in the background

LT John F. Kennedy and LTJG John McElroy
Rendova Island
August 1943
PT-161 in the background

 

LTJG John McElroy PT-161 Skipper

LTJG John McElroy (left)
PT-161 Skipper

Our war continued on as we slowly progressed to the north. We spent a short time stationed at the island of Vella LaVella at a place called Lambu Lambu Cove. The base was just a few native grass huts and some tents back in the trees. There was an abandoned Japanese barge on the beach. A small dock was used to tie up to for refueling and all the other boats were tied around the cove to trees that grew out over the water. We were told there were still Japanese on the island and to not wander too far off the base.

Other places where we saw action were Lever Harbor, Cape Torokina and Green Island. Gradually we pushed the Japanese back closer to their huge stronghold at Rabaul, their largest base in the South Pacific.

PT-161 docked at Green Island in the Solomons

PT-161 docked at Green Island in the Solomons

There were many nights we returned to base repeatedly for ammunition in strikes against Japanese destroyers and enemy barges.   One night returning to  Kula Gulf on New Georgia, we discovered all our ready ammunition had been exhausted.   Forced to gather old ammo exposed to the elements, we  suffered misfires and hung fires the rest of the night.

I will always remember my crew’s bravery that evening.  In a fight for our lives with eight enemy barges, only one of our main guns remained operational.  Wylan never wavered and remained on the bow firing his .50 Cal. like a madman, while our other guns  were silent.

I ran to check on the other guns and caught Joe Tiberti pulling a smoking 20-mm shell out of his gun and throwing it over the side with his bare hands.  Van der Heiden was ramming the 20’s out of our stern mounted gun with all the force he could muster. There were buckets of water everywhere with hot 20-mm barrels in them. The last barrel was still in place and Van was banging away on a cleaning rod trying to clear the barrel, not knowing what second might be his last as he was hammering on a high explosive round.

I ran back to check on Chase’s twin 50’s and found him working intently on a lap full of parts from both guns and whatever spare parts he could find. There were tracers flying everywhere and a few uncomfortably close to my head but Chase never noticed, except for the light they provided for him to work.  I mentally crossed those guns off as Wylan’s 50 was the only gun firing except for the rifles and a Tommy gun from the remainder of the crew.

On my next run, however, those guns were all spitting fire like a vengeance. Oh, what a wonderful sound!  That was the coolest exhibition of nerve that I have ever seen.  I never dreamed they would have them functioning in the middle of a pitch dark firefight.  I was certainly one proud skipper.  It was a very satisfying feeling to witness the early dawn’s light filter over a sea as smooth as glass with a broom tied to our mast as we cruised slowly back toward our base.

About this time, I began to experience some episodes of chills, fever, and sweats. Our medical officer treated me for malaria and I was able to rebound after several days. The mosquitoes here are very thick. You can sleep under a net but there is only so much you can do.

At this point in the war, our PTs had become personnel barge fighters. The idea was to keep the Japanese from moving men from island to island so they couldn’t concentrate their forces or escape. We also helped move Marine strike forces behind enemy lines.

It was early fall of ’43 that our own forces and Tokyo Rose started reporting I had been killed in action.  I had to write a letter to my folks to let them know that, regardless of reports to the contrary, I was safe and well and still had my boat.  My officer friends, however, started talking about me in the past tense.

Reporting LTJG John McElroy KIA Waxahachie Daily Light November 4, 1943

LTJG John McElroy Reported KIA
Waxahachie Daily Light
November 4, 1943

Again we moved further north to yet another new base, this time at Stirling in the Treasury Islands. Here we also tied up our boats to huge trees that overhung the water. The water was clear and you could see the coral twenty feet deep.

Motor Torpedo Boat Stirling Base Treasury Island 1942

Motor Torpedo Boat Stirling Base
Treasury Island 1942

Life went on as usual on the island during the day with powdered eggs, bugs, air raids, and poker.  I was told confidentially that orders had arrived for me to return to the states.  A day or two later, Commander Kelly called me in. I thought it was to give me the good news but instead confronted me with, “McElroy, how would you like to volunteer for a dangerous mission – a PT boat strike on Rabaul Harbor?”

As we prepared for the raid, I couldn’t help feeling a sense of dread.  It was going to be a twelve PT boat attack, so we were headed for the lion’s den with 48 torpedoes and roughly 150 men.  It was a long passage north through hazardous waters up to New Britain Island, then skirting east around and up to the Duke of York Islands and in to the Bismark Sea.  We were most assuredly in forbidden waters now. 

Around the peninsula and past Sulphur Point and there it was, the biggest Japanese naval base in the South Pacific.  In we went, twelve boats at combat speed, loaded and locked.  This idea might just be crazy enough to work.

We passed a Japanese destroyer 75 yards abeam. Van der Heiden and Frost were in a very heated argument as to the number of stacks and guns on it. Their argument was very soon settled when they opened up on us with everything they had.

I will never forget the sight of all those Japanese sailors running all over the deck. We could hear their voices and, with a sailing rock, I could have hit one of them.  However, we were too close for their big guns to target us.  The lookout in their crow’s nest was now firing down on us and  I figure he was the one that put the holes in our deck.

My crew put up a fight that I shall never forget. On the way back I overheard someone say, “Are those your knees knocking or mine?” We didn’t bring much ammo home but we did make it. With help, we made it.

Upon our return, Commander Kelly gave me the news that I already knew, my orders to the states for leave.   I was steadily losing weight and my strength. The malarial symptoms came back and the docs stepped up my treatment

He also informed me that I had been recommended for a medal.   There was a little ceremony under the coconut trees and I was awarded the Silver Star with an ocean breeze cooling the sweat on my face. The citation came from Admiral Bull Halsey.   I was pleased with the honor but upset at the same time. They should have cited my outstanding crew.

I went to my men and thanked each one of them and shook their hands. It was very hard for me to leave them, tougher than I ever imagined.  We made a great team and, if it were in my power, every one of them would have been decorated.

Silver Star Presentation LT John McElroy

Silver Star Presentation
LTJG John McElroy

Silver Star Citation-1943 LT John McElroy

Silver Star Citation-1943
LTJG John McElroy

Ron 9 Squadron Commanding Officer Robert B. Kelly Letter regarding LTJG John McElroy's PT service during WWII

Ron 9 Squadron Commanding Officer Robert B. Kelly
Letter to LTJG John McElroy’s parents regarding his PT service during WWII

Ron 9 Commander Kelly Letter-3

I was detached from PT service on January 11, 1944 and it was a long and strangely quiet voyage home with lots of time topside for reflection. The doctors told me my war was now over.  There is a feeling of regret about this… but I never lost any of my men and for that I am grateful.  It sure will be good to see home and family.  I hope they recognize me.

Sailing underneath the Golden Gate was very nearly an emotional experience. My first steps back on the dry ground of America sure felt wonderful. I had not realized how great it would feel to be back in the states. The medical officers here treated me for a few more weeks and then I was reassigned to set up a Navy duty station here in San Francisco.

A few months later Eve and I were married in my parent’s home in Texas.  It was April 18, 1944, and we began our delayed life together.

Eve and John McElroy

Eve and John McElroy

John McElroy was appointed to the rank of Lieutenant on April 2, 1944.

John and Eve McElroy

John and Eve McElroy
University of Notre Dame
South Bend, Indiana
November 6, 1944 through September 24, 1945

I was reassigned as Seamanship Instructor at the US Naval Reserve Midshipmen’s School, Notre Dame, where I served for the remainder of the war.

We operated training craft out on Lake Michigan.  Once dispatched to Jacksonville, Florida with several recruits,  we took delivery of a 104-foot rescue boat.   I sailed it down around the Florida Keys, west across the Gulf of Mexico, and all the way up the Mississippi and Chicago Rivers without the aid of a pilot.  I enjoyed it immensely, as no one shot at us along the entire trip.  It was my last fling as a Navy boat skipper.

———————————–

All three of my brothers enlisted for the war.  Tom served as an Ensign on a tanker in the South Pacific.  Pat, just 17, served as a control tower and radar operator in the Army Air Corps.  Bodie, who suffered from a leg injury  from a horse accident in his youth, was rejected by every branch he approached.  Turned down fifteen times, he never gave up and finally begged his way into the Navy to serve proudly in the Pacific as a chief mechanic. 

Following the war, I was released to inactive duty.  When the Korean War broke out, I was recalled and served in the Office of Naval Officer Procurement in San Francisco and subsequently in Albuquerque.  Later transferred to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, I served as the Assistant Naval Port Control Officer.

With the war over in Korea, I chose to leave active duty in May of 1955 and returned to Texas, settling back in San Antonio.   Following more than 20 years of active and reserve duty, I subsequently retired from the Navy as a Captain.  I will surely miss it but it was time to move on.

Acknowledgment to the rank of Captain to John McElroy by Rear Admiral Charles Lyman USN

Acknowledgment to John McElroy on the rank of Captain
by Rear Admiral Charles H. Lyman USN

Captain John McElroy (right) and fellow officer onboard ship during USNR maneuvers

Captain John McElroy (right) and fellow officer onboard ship during USNR maneuvers

—————————

John McElroy passed away on February 10, 2001 and was buried with full military honors at Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery in San Antonio. 

WWII PT Boat-161 Skipper and Silver Star Recipient

WWII PT-161 Skipper
and Silver Star Recipient

————————————-

In Tribute to my Father and all PT Boat Veterans

“We stand on the backs of their service and sacrifice”

Posted in American History, Veterans | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | 8 Comments

A Nation of Immigrants

United States Declaration of Independence Signed by the Continental Congress July 4, 1776

Declaration of Independence
Signed by the Continental Congress
July 4, 1776

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, and that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness”

Thomas Jefferson A Founding Father  Principal Author  Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson
A Founding Father
Principal Author of the Declaration of Independence

In 1886, a gift from the people of France to the United States would become a beacon of hope for immigrants to this country.  The copper statue, designed by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, a French sculptor, was built by Gustave Eiffel and dedicated on October 28, 1886.

Statue of Liberty Liberty Island New York City, New York Circa 1900

Statue of Liberty
Liberty Island
New York City, New York
Circa 1900

Mounted inside the base of the Statue of Liberty

Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me…”

Sonnet by Emma Lazarus – 1883

———————–

President Grover Cleveland presided over the dedication event,  preceded by a New York City parade.  Estimates in attendance ranged from several hundred thousand to a million strong.  As the parade passed the New York Stock Exchange, traders throwing ticker-tape from the windows  would  initiate  New York’s  tradition of  the ticker-tape parade.

A nautical armada followed for the unveiling of the statue and President Cleveland’s remarks.

“…Liberty enlightens the world.”

“Unveiling the Statue of Liberty 1886”
Oil on canvas by Edward Moran (1829-1901)
The J. Clarence Davies Collection
Museum of the City of New York

The United States experienced major waves of immigration during the colonial era of the 1600s, again in the early 19th century, and from the 1880s to 1920.  Many came to America seeking greater economic opportunity and religious freedom.   Others sought solace from war, famine, and oppression.

The first significant federal legislation restricting immigration was enacted in 1882. Individual states regulated  the process  prior to the dedication of Ellis Island, as the first federal immigrant station in 1892.

Initial Ellis Island Immigrant Station Opened on January 1, 1892.  Built of wood, it was completely destroyed by fire on June 15, 1897.

Original Ellis Island Immigrant Station January 1, 1892
Built of wood, it was completely destroyed by fire on June 15, 1897
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Second Ellis Island Immigration Landing Station December 17, 1900, as seen on February 24, 1905 Library of Congress

Second Ellis Island Immigration Landing Station
December 17, 1900
as seen on February 24, 1905
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

The present main structure was designed in French Renaissance Revival style and built of red brick with limestone trim.  When it opened on December 17, 1900, officials estimated 5,000 immigrants per day would be processed.  The facilities, however, proved barely able to handle the flood of immigrants arriving in the years just prior to World War I.  Writer Louis Adamic, arriving in America from Slovenia in 1913, described the night he and many others slept on bunk beds in a huge hall. Lacking a warm blanket, the young man “shivered, sleepless, all night, listening to snores” and dreams “in perhaps a dozen different languages.”  The facility was so large that the dining room could seat 1,000 people.

After its opening, Ellis Island was expanded with landfill and additional structures were built.  By the time it closed on November 12, 1954, twelve million immigrants had been processed by the U.S. Bureau of Immigration.   It is estimated that 10.5 million departed for points across the United States.

Immigrants on an Atlantic liner bound for New York and the United States Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division
Immigrants on an Atlantic liner bound for New York and the United States
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division
Immigrants on the steerage deck of an ocean liner passing the Statue of Liberty. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division
Immigrants on the steerage deck of an ocean liner passing the Statue of Liberty
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Immigrants waiting for transfer to Ellis Island, October 30, 1912 Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division
Immigrants waiting for transfer to Ellis Island, October 30, 1912
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

 

Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island  1902

Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island
1902
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

 

Immigrants Awaiting Inspection  1904 Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Immigrants awaiting Inspection
1904
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

My own maternal grandparents, Carolina and Nestor Simolin, were Finnish immigrants in 1920 with two daughters, Viann (age 4) and my mother, Eva (age 2).  Nestor, a tailor from the old country, was immensely grateful for the opportunity to thrive in his chosen trade.  Settling in northern Minnesota with other Scandinavians, they lived amid the climate and landscape of their homeland in this adopted country.

Carolina and Nestor Simolin  Finland  circa 1915

Carolina and Nestor Simolin
Finland
circa 1915

Carolina  and Nestor Simolin with daughters Viann and Eva, my mother<br/> (1920)

Carolina and Nestor Simolin with daughters Viann (left) and Eva, my mother
(1920)

Nestor Simolin (2nd from left) as a tailor in Chicago 1927

Nestor Simolin (2nd from left) as a tailor in Chicago
1927

 God Bless America

U.S. flag

 God shed his grace on thee
And crown thy good with brotherhood
From sea to shining sea

—  America the Beautiful

4th of July fireworks  Washington D.C.

4th of July fireworks
Washington D.C.

Independence Day

July 4, 2015

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Posted in American History, Veterans | Tagged , , , , , , , , | 6 Comments

Remembering the Fallen

The Folded Flag

Ode of Remembrance

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun, and in the morning,
We will remember them.

     Laurence Binyon’s “For the Fallen” – 1914

Wherever they may rest-we honor them

How sleep the brave, who sink to rest, by all their country’s wishes blest

William Collins

——————-

The American Revolution

1775 – 1783

The Delaware Regiment at the Battle of Long Island Brooklyn, New York -- August 27, 1776

The Delaware Regiment
Battle of Long Island
Brooklyn, New York — August 27, 1776

The Tomb of the Unknown Revolutionary War Soldier Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

The Tomb of the Unknown Revolutionary War Soldier
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier of the American Revolution is a war memorial located in Washington Square in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  It honors the 25,000 soldiers who died during the American Revolutionary War, many of whom were buried in that park in mass graves.  In the  Tomb  rests the disinterred and archaeologically examined remains of a soldier, although undetermined whether Colonial or British.

The memorial was first conceived in 1954 by the Washington Square Planning Committee and completed in 1957.   The monument, designed by architect G. Edwin Brumbaugh, includes an eternal flame and, as  its centerpiece,  a bronze cast of Jean Antoine Houdon’s statue of George Washington.    An unknown number of bodies remain buried beneath the square and surrounding area.

Engraved in the side of the tomb are these words:

“Freedom is a light for which many men have died in darkness”

“The independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint councils and joint  efforts of common dangers, suffering and success”   (Washington Farewell Address, Sept. 17, 1796)

“In unmarked graves within this square lie thousands of unknown soldiers of Washington’s Army who died of wounds and sickness during the Revolutionary War”

The plaque on the tomb reads:

“Beneath this stone rests a soldier of Washington’s army who died to give you liberty”

 ——————-

War of 1812

1812 – 1815

Battle of New Orleans January, 1815 National Archives & Records Administration

Battle of New Orleans
January, 1815
National Archives & Records Administration

The 32-month War of 1812 and its 15,000 casualties approached the 25,000 war-related  deaths  during  nearly 9 years of the American Revolutionary War.  In both cases, disease, not the musket, created most casualties.  Pneumonia was a particular scourge of American society and its army was not immune.

Multiple monuments to the War of 1812 exist nationwide, including the memorial to the Battle of New Orleans.

Battle of New Orleans Monument Chalmette, Louisiana

Battle of New Orleans Monument
Chalmette, Louisiana

The final land battle of the War of 1812 was fought here following the signing of the peace treaty but prior to the news reaching the armies. The Battle of New Orleans Memorial stands over 70 feet tall and looks over the Chalmette battlefield where 2,000 British and 13 U.S. casualties occurred.

——————-

Civil War

1861 – 1865

Unknown Union Soldier of the Civil War Circa 1860 and 1870 - Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Unknown Union Soldier of the Civil War
Circa 1860 and 1870 – Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Unknown Confederate Soldier Company E,

Unknown Confederate Soldier
Company E, “Lynchburg Rifles,” 11th Virginia Infantry Volunteers, 1861

The Civil War Monument of the Unknown Located on the grounds of Arlington House (the Robert E. Lee Memorial) Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia Creative Commons, author Tim. 1965

The Civil War Monument of the Unknown
Located on the grounds of Arlington House (the Robert E. Lee Memorial)
Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia
(Photo: Creative Commons, author Tim. 1965)

The inscription:

“Beneath this stone repose the bones of two thousand one hundred and eleven unknown soldiers gathered after the war from the fields of Bull Run and the route to the Rappahanock.  Their remains could not be identified but their names and deaths are recorded in the archives of their country and its grateful citizens honor them and their noble army of martyrs.  May they rest in peace.  September A.D. 1866”

U.S. Army troops, dispatched to investigate every battlefield within a 35 mile radius of Washington, D.C., collected the bodies of the 2,111 Union and Confederate dead.  Most were retrieved from the battlefields of First and Second Bull Run,  as well as the Union army’s retreat along the Rappahanock River.  Some of these soldiers were interred where they fell, but most were full or partial remains discovered on the field of battle.  None were identifiable.   The Civil War incurred 750,000 in casualties.

  ——————-

  Spanish – American War

April 25-December 10, 1898

Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill July 2, 1898

Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill
July 2, 1898

United States Army officer Colonel Charles A. Wikoff was the most senior U.S. military officer killed in the Spanish–American War.  American casualties totaled 2,446 with 385 in combat and 2,061 succumbing to mosquito-borne disease.

Colonel Charles A. Wickoff, U.S. Army Spanish American War

Colonel Charles A. Wickoff, U.S. Army
Spanish-American War

Spanish-American War Memorial Arlington National Cemetery Arlington, Virginia Dedicated May 12, 1902

Spanish-American War Memorial
Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington, Virginia
Dedicated May 12, 1902

——————-

World War I

1917 – 1918

President Wilson addresses Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917.

President Wilson addresses Congress on the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917.

World War I was a global war centered in Europe from 28 July 1914 until 11 November 1918.  More than 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war which was one of the deadliest conflicts in history.   U.S. military casualties totaled 116,516.

WWI American soldier, Le Mans, France

WWI American soldier, Le Mans, France

Tomb of the Unknowns Arlington National Cemetery

Tomb of the Unknowns
Arlington National Cemetery

On March 4, 1921, the United States Congress approved the burial of an unidentified WWI American serviceman in the plaza of the new Memorial Amphitheater.   On November 11th, an unknown soldier returned from France was also entombed.

——————-

World War II

1941 – 1945

President Franklin D. Roosevelt Delivering his "Day of Infamy" speech to Congress for a declaration of war December 8, 1941 (U.S. Government - U.S. Archives)

President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Delivering his “Day of Infamy” speech to Congress for a declaration of war
December 8, 1941
(U.S. Government – U.S. Archives)

WWII was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.  It involved the vast majority of the world’s nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.   The most widespread war in history, it directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries.  Marked by mass deaths of civilians, as well as military forces, an estimated 50 to 85 million fatalities made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history.  U.S. military casualties reached 405,399.

American Soldier in 1940s WWII uniform

American soldier in 1940s WWII uniform

Pacific Arch of the National WWII Memorial-Washington, DC

Pacific Arch of the National WWII Memorial-Washington, DC

The National World War II Memorial is a national monument dedicated to Americans who served in the armed forces and as civilians during World War II.   Consisting of 56 pillars and a pair of small triumphal arches surrounding a plaza and fountain, it sits on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

Opened on April 29, 2004, it was dedicated by President George W. Bush on May 29.  The memorial is administered by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks group.   As of 2009, more than 4.4 million people visit the memorial each year.

——————-

Korean War

1950 – 1953

U.S. Troops in Korea September, 1945

U.S. Troops in Korea
September, 1945

The Korean War between North and South Korea was joined by a United Nations force led by the United States in support for the South, while China, aligned with the North, was assisted by the Soviet Union.  The war arose from the division of Korea at the end of World War II and from the global tensions of the Cold War  which developed immediately afterwards.   American casualties for this conflict would reach 36,574.

Aerial View of the Korean War Veterans Memorial Washington, D.C.

Aerial View of the Korean War Veterans Memorial
Washington, D.C.

The Korean War Veterans Memorial was confirmed by the U.S. Congress on October 28, 1986, with design and construction managed by the Korean War Veterans Memorial Advisory Board and the American Battle Monuments Commission.  President George H. W. Bush conducted the groundbreaking for the site  on June 14, 1992.

 ——————-

Vietnam War

1964 – 1973

US troops fighting in 1965 Battle of Ia Drang UH-1 Huey infantry dispatch

US troops fighting in 1965 Battle of Ia Drang
UH-1 Huey infantry dispatch

The Vietnam War was a Cold-War era  conflict  that  occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.    It was fought between North Vietnam—supported by the Soviet Union, China and other communist allies—and the government of South Vietnam—supported by the United States and other anti-communist proponents.

Direct U.S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973.  The capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year.  The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities.  Estimates of the number of Vietnamese service members and civilians killed vary from 800,000 to 3.1 million.  Some 200,000–300,000 Cambodians, 20,000–200,000 Laotians, and 58,209 U.S. service members also died in the conflict.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall National Mall Washington, D.C. Mario Roverto Durán Ortiz. December 26, 2011

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall
National Mall
Washington, D.C.
Mario Roverto Durán Ortiz. December 26, 2011 photo

Three Soldiers by Frederick Hart Grounds of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial National Mall Washington, D.C.

Three Soldiers by Frederick Hart
Grounds of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial
National Mall
Washington, D.C

——————-

Gulf War

1990 – 1991

USAF aircraft of the 4th Fighter Wing (F-16, F-15C and F-15E) fly over Kuwaiti oil fires, set by the retreating Iraqi army during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.

USAF aircraft of the 4th Fighter Wing (F-16, F-15C and F-15E) fly over Kuwaiti oil fires, set by the retreating Iraqi army during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.

The Gulf War  (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield  (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase.  It was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion and annexation of Kuwait.  U.S. military forces suffered 384 deaths and 467 wounded.

U.S. Army soldiers from the 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade during the Gulf War

U.S. Army soldiers from the 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade during the Gulf War

Capt. Michael Scott Speicher carried by a Navy honor guard following his death when his F/A-18 Hornet was shot down over Anbar province, Iraq on the first day of offensive operations during Desert Storm on Jan. 17, 1991

August 13, 2009.  Capt. Michael Scott Speicher carried by a Navy honor guard to All Saints Chapel at the Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, FL.  Declared MIA when his F/A-18 Hornet was shot down over Anbar province, Iraq on the first day of offensive operations in Desert Storm, Jan. 17, 1991, his remains were recovered from Iraq in 2009.

——————-

War on Terror

Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, and ISIL (Operation Inherent Resolve)

7 October 2001 – Present

Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, an international military campaign commenced for the War on Terror.  The United States led a coalition of other NATO and non-NATO nations to destroy al-Qaeda and other militant extremist organizations.

U.S. President George W. Bush first used the term “War on Terror” on 20 September 2001. The Bush administration and the western media have since used the term to argue a global military, political, legal, and conceptual struggle against those designated as terrorist in nature and the regimes accused of supporting them.  It was originally used with a particular focus on Muslim countries associated with Islamic terrorism organizations including al-Qaeda and those of similar persuasion.

In the period following 9/11, former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf sided with the US against the Taliban government in Afghanistan after an ultimatum by then US President George W. Bush.  Musharraf agreed to give the US the use of three airbases for Operation Enduring Freedom.

On 12 January 2002, Musharraf gave a speech against Islamic extremism. He unequivocally condemned all acts of terrorism and pledged to combat Islamic extremism and lawlessness within Pakistan itself. He stated that his government was committed to rooting out extremism and made it clear that the banned militant organizations would not be allowed to resurface under any new name.  It’s estimated that 15 US soldiers have been killed while fighting al-Qaeda and Taliban remnants in Pakistan since the War on Terror began.

In 2013, President Barack Obama announced the United States was no longer pursuing a War on Terror, as the military focus should be on specific enemies rather than a tactic.  He stated, “We must define our effort not as a boundless ‘Global War on Terror,’ but rather as a series of persistent, targeted efforts to dismantle specific networks of violent extremists that threaten America.”

The president has authorized U.S. Central Command to work with partner nations to conduct targeted airstrikes of Iraq and Syria as part of the comprehensive strategy to degrade and defeat the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, or ISIL.

 Afghanistan

2001 – Present (2,229 casualties)

American infantry in Afghanistan, assigned to Company A, 2nd Battalion, 22nd Infantry Regiment, 10th Mountain Division, board a CH-47 Chinook helicopter for return to Kandahar Army Air Field on Sept. 4, 2003. The Soldiers were searching in Daychopan district, Afghanistan, for Taliban fighters and illegal weapons caches.

American infantry in Afghanistan, assigned to Company A, 2nd Battalion, 22nd Infantry Regiment, 10th Mountain Division, board a CH-47 Chinook helicopter for return to Kandahar Army Air Field on Sept. 4, 2003. The Soldiers were searching in Daychopan district, Afghanistan, for Taliban fighters and illegal weapons caches.

U.S. Army Spc. Jason Curtis Assigned to Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 151st Infantry Regiment, provides security for members of a medical civil action project in Parun,Afghanistan, June 28, 2007.

U.S. Army Spc. Jason Curtis Assigned to Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 151st Infantry Regiment,
provides security for members of a medical civil action project in Parun, Afghanistan
June 28, 2007.

Iraq

2003 – 2011  (4,488 casualties)

Sgt. Auralie Suarez and Private Brett Mansink take cover during a firefight with guerrilla forces in the Al Doura section of Baghdad on 7th of March 2007. The soldiers are from Company C, 5th Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division.

Sgt. Auralie Suarez and Private Brett Mansink take cover during a firefight with guerrilla forces in the Al Doura section of Baghdad on 7th of March 2007. The soldiers are from Company C, 5th Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division.

Sgt. Karl King and Pfc. David Valenzuela lay down cover fire while their squad maneuvers down a street from behind the cover of a Stryker combat vehicle. They are engaging gunmen who fired on their convoy in Al Doura, Iraq on 7 March 2007. The Soldiers are from Company C, 5th Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division. U.S. Army. Photo by Staff Sgt. Sean A. Foley

Sgt. Karl King and Pfc. David Valenzuela lay down cover fire while their squad maneuvers down a street from behind the cover of a Stryker combat vehicle. They are engaging gunmen who fired on their convoy in Al Doura, Iraq on 7 March 2007.
The Soldiers are from Company C, 5th Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division. U.S. Army. Photo by Staff Sgt. Sean A. Foley

Pakistan

Since 2001  (15 casualties)

Pakistan-Afghanistan border. GI standing in the Khyber Pass at the Torkham border crossing.

Pakistan-Afghanistan border. GI standing in the Khyber Pass at the Torkham border crossing.

Soldier Edwin Churchill calls for indirect fire following an enemy attack on his company's position near the Pakistan border in Afghanistan on May 18, 2011.

Soldier Edwin Churchill calls for indirect fire following an enemy attack on his company’s position near the Pakistan border in Afghanistan on May 18, 2011.

Syria

Tomahawk missile being fire from US destroyers USS Philippine Sea and USS Arleigh Burke at IS targets 23 September 2014

Tomahawk missile being fired from US destroyers USS Philippine Sea and USS Arleigh Burke at IS targets
23 September 2014

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In Memory of their Sacrifice

Flag-draped American caskets on National Mall

 God Bless America and our Military

Helicopter flying in front of the Statue of Liberty, New York. Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement office of Air and Marine Interdiction provides airspace security over New York City.

Helicopter flying in front of the Statue of Liberty, New York. Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement office of Air and Marine Interdiction provides airspace security over New York City.

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